Ante Mandić

Empowering Stakeholders: From House of Quality to Educational Programs

In our recent stakeholder meeting, we utilized an effective tool called the House of Quality to evaluate and prioritize interventions based on the needs of critical stakeholders, including communities, businesses, cultural institutions, policy makers, and the environment. By employing this method, we aimed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the pros and cons of each alternative. Our objective remains to empower stakeholders and institutions to take the lead in the development of educational programs. In this blog post, we will explore the key areas of interest that emerged from our analysis: Entrepreneurship based on cultural heritage, Cultural heritage valorization through sustainable tourism development, Marketing in cultural tourism, and the Role of cultural heritage in the sustainable development of local communities.

Entrepreneurship Based on Cultural Heritage:
Through the House of Quality evaluation, we thoroughly examined the intervention of promoting entrepreneurship based on cultural heritage. This intervention received positive feedback from stakeholders, particularly in terms of its potential to foster economic growth, empower local communities, and preserve cultural traditions. However, challenges were also identified, such as the need for capacity building, access to funding, and addressing potential conflicts between commercialization and authenticity. By addressing these concerns through educational programs, stakeholders can harness the benefits of cultural heritage entrepreneurship while mitigating associated risks.

Cultural Heritage Valorization through Sustainable Tourism Development:
The House of Quality analysis shed light on the intervention of cultural heritage valorization through sustainable tourism development. Stakeholders recognized the significant opportunities presented by this intervention, such as increased visitor engagement, economic benefits, and enhanced cultural awareness. However, concerns were raised regarding potential negative impacts on local communities, overtourism, and environmental degradation. To address these concerns, educational programs should focus on responsible tourism practices, community involvement, and sustainable development strategies to ensure that cultural heritage is valued and protected while promoting a positive tourism experience.

Marketing in Cultural Tourism:
The evaluation of the intervention focused on marketing in cultural tourism highlighted its potential to attract visitors, promote cultural experiences, and stimulate economic growth. Stakeholders emphasized the importance of effective marketing strategies tailored to the cultural tourism sector. However, challenges were identified, including limited marketing knowledge among stakeholders, budget constraints, and the need for collaboration between different stakeholders to create cohesive marketing campaigns. Educational programs should address these challenges by providing stakeholders with the necessary skills and knowledge to implement successful marketing initiatives that align with the unique characteristics of cultural tourism destinations.

The Role of Cultural Heritage in the Sustainable Development of Local Communities:
The House of Quality analysis enabled stakeholders to assess the intervention regarding the role of cultural heritage in the sustainable development of local communities. Stakeholders recognized the potential of cultural heritage to foster community pride, social cohesion, and economic resilience. However, concerns were raised regarding the need for community engagement, equitable distribution of benefits, and the integration of cultural heritage into local development plans. Educational programs should focus on empowering stakeholders to actively participate in decision-making processes, promoting inclusive development, and facilitating collaboration between different stakeholders to ensure that cultural heritage contributes to sustainable and holistic community development.

By employing the House of Quality evaluation, we gained valuable insights into the four interventions and their alignment with the needs of critical stakeholders, including communities, businesses, cultural institutions, policy makers, and the environment. It is now the responsibility of these stakeholders and FEBT, as Lead of SmartculTour living lab, to take the lead in the development of educational programs. By prioritizing Entrepreneurship based on cultural heritage, Cultural heritage valorization through sustainable tourism development, Marketing in cultural tourism, and the Role of cultural heritage in the sustainable development of local communities, we can collectively work towards preserving, promoting, and sustainably leveraging our cultural heritage. Let us seize this opportunity to empower stakeholders and shape a future where our heritage thrives, and our communities flourish.

The European Researchers’ Night – Split LL

On September 30th, the FEBT team leader, prof. Lidija Petrić and Split LL Manager, ass. prof. Ante Mandić participated in The European Researchers’ Night, one of the main activities of the Blue-connect project funded through the Marie Skłodowska – Curie call within the Horizon Europe program.  The event was organized by Split University, a project partner, and held in several locations in the city centre.

The main goal of the Researchers’ Night was to connect science with society by bringing research and researchers closer to the public and strengthening public recognition of science and research education, especially among the young population.

The FEBT team presented the SmartCulTour project in the EU corner, together with other projects financed through the EC calls.

The exchange visit in the Split Metropolitan Area LL

Between the 11th and 13th of May, Split Metropolitan Area Living Lab hosted the stakeholders from the Rotterdam and Vicenza Living Labs. Split Metropolitan Area consists of micro destinations in the coastal area, which are currently the hub, and rural regions that, although rich with heritage, experience significantly lower tourism demand. As tourism in the Split centre has reached its peaks organising alternative visitor experiences, i.e. flagship attractions, to pull in visitors, meet the needs of residents and develop more robust tourism activities in such places could be a solution.

As announced in the exchange preparation meetings, the program in Split focused on challenges associated with the marketing of sustainable cultural tourism, more precisely, the sustainable interpretation of both tangible and intangible cultural heritage. The main idea behind the program was to showcase two distinctive approaches (public vs private; more vs less successful) toward the organisation of cultural tourism visitor experiences in two distinctive yet neighbouring destinations and discuss the challenges and opportunities with visiting stakeholders.

The exchange program began on 11 May when visitors had the opportunity to enjoy the guided tour of the Diocletian Palace in the Split town centre (Photo 1). This was also an opportunity for hosts and visitors to meet and discuss the expectations from the two-day workshop in an informal atmosphere.

The exchange program began on 11 May when visitors had the opportunity to enjoy the guided tour of the Diocletian Palace in the Split town centre (Photo 1). This was also an opportunity for hosts and visitors to meet and discuss the expectations from the two-day workshop in an informal atmosphere.

On 12 May at 9 AM, hosts and visitors meet at the Faculty of economics, business and tourism to meet the Faculties management. Following a brief introduction, we visited the city of Sinj, where we were welcomed in «Alkarski dvori» by Ms Monika Vrgoč, the DMO manager. Ms Vrgoč introduced tourism development in Sinj while particularly focusing on the disparity between the potential for cultural tourism development and what has been done. Ms Vrgoč outlined the challenges associated with visitor experience design, sustainable interpretation and communication with visitors. During the presentation, the visitors posed questions. After the presentation, Ms Vrgoč took us to visit the Museum of Sinjska Alka, where she organised guided tourism and the projection of the documentary movie on the Alka knight tournament and the history of Sinj. Following, we visited the local church, i.e. sanctuary of the Miraculous Madonna of Sinj, and the local site with the roman monument representing what seems to be the first evidence of football in Europe, as recognised by FIFA. After the lunch break, Ms Vrgoč organised a visit to the recently built interpretation centre, which has not been opened for visitors due to the lack of consensus within the local government regarding who should take responsibility for management. This was followed by a short visit to the horse centre. We went back to «Alkarski dvori» where we discussed the challenges that were raised and questions that emerged during the visit (Photo 2).

On 13 May at 9 AM, we visited Stella Croatica privately owned experience centre in Klis. The centre is focused on the interpretation of Mediterranean customs, traditions and natural heritage. The place involves the (1) a small factory where dominantly employed local community members produce selected products (food, cosmetics) from locally grown ingredients; (2) the botanic garden with the majority of typically Mediterranean plants; (3) a distillery outlining the process of the development of cosmetics; (4) olive museum interpretation and education centre showcasing the process of the development of olive oil; (4) concept store; and (5) outlay of the traditional Dalmatian stone village where visitors can explore the village and enjoy the traditional gastronomy. We were welcomed by Mr Marin Jerković, who gave us 3 hours guided tour and explained the history and the vision for the centre’s future, their commitment to conservation, education, and benefit to the local community. The guided tour started in the factory, where visitors could see the production and packaging of some of their products and taste a Fig cake, their most famous pastry. Following, we were taken to the distillery, where Mr Jerković explained the process of the extraction of the lavender and immortelle essential oil, which has been used to create many of their product. The tour continued with the exploration of the botanic garden. He took us then to the interactive and educational olive oil museum, where he reflected on the history of olive oil and the extraction of oil from olives and provided some good insights on distinguishing lamp oil from virgin and extra virgin olive oil. The tour continued with a stop at the concept store and a visit to the interpretation of a traditional Dalmatian village. Within the village, Mr Jerković organised the tasting of their product and, after instruction on how to blend the tasts, left us to explore unique tastes for some time. After some 30 minutes, Mr Jerković returned, and the discussion began. While the visitor posed a question on how they plan to increase the number of visitors, Mr Jerković explained how visitor growth is not the primary focus of the experience centre as they are currently satisfied with the numbers. They are focused on diversifying offers and maintaining the quality of experiences. Some good points on market visibility of concept and branding were made.

Indeed, the exchange visit is considered a success as it provides insight into the complexity of the cultural-heritage founded visitor experience design and sustainable interpretation. The main lessons learned could be summarised as follows:

Indeed, the exchange visit is considered a success as it provided insight into the complexity of the cultural-heritage founded visitor experience design and sustainable interpretation. The main lessons learned could be summarised as follows:

  • Successful cultural tourism development requires the commitment and partnership of the relevant stakeholders.
  • The collaboration between DMOs and other stakeholders is crucial for sustainable experience design and interpretation.
  • The development of facilities and infrastructure requires the consensus of the local government and DMOs.
  • Cultural tourism businesses need a clear vision of a sustainable future and prioritise value and service quality over volume.
  • Sustainable valorisation of the cultural heritage requires emphasising the wellbeing of local communiteis and delivering transformative and memorable visitor experiences.

UNESCO Global Capacity Building Programme – Intangible Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Split Living Lab

As part of Split’s Living Lab activities, the Faculty of Economics, Business and Tourism from the University of Split (FEBT), in collaboration with UNESCO, has organized a workshop focused on intangible cultural heritage (ICH) and sustainable cultural tourism. The workshop is focused on the capacity building of the local stakeholders on the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the ICH, emphasizing participatory inventory and awareness-raising on ICH. It aims to introduce the stakeholders to the key concepts of the Convention, its ethical principles, and methods of participatory inventory of ICH, and raise the awareness of the local community on the ICH’s richness and its potential in the context of sustainable cultural tourism development. The program has been planned as a four-part: two online and two live meetings. The manager of all four modules is Mrs Tamara Nikolić Đerić, PhD, a longtime UNESCO facilitator.

The first part of the program was organized on Monday (February 21) via the Zoom application. The focus was on identifying and inventorying local knowledge for cultural tourism development. There were approximately 20 LL participants, and it lasted 2 hours. The Convention on the Preservation of the ICH, its ethical principles, and participatory inventory methods were discussed during the workshop. After the theoretical part, the LL participants prepared a questionnaire for the participatory inventory of ICH under the facilitator’s supervision. Then, from February 21 to March 1, LL participants were given the task to identify one ICH element and conduct at least one interview with local community members in preparation for the next part of the workshop program. During the process, they were continuously supported by the facilitator.

On March 4, in the hotel President, in the city of Solin, the second part of the workshop took place. It was dedicated to the inventory of ICH. During the first half of the daily program, incentivisation processes were discussed among LL participants, emphasizing the challenges and opportunities identified while working together with the local communities. In the second half of the program, the meeting of LL participants and invited local community members from Solin was organized. They worked together on the development of the ideas.

The third part of the workshop happened on March 15, online (via the Zoom application). The main topic was raising community awareness of heritage potential in sustainable cultural tourism development. Also, the principles of the Convention on raising awareness of ICH were argued at the workshop. In addition to good practices and the potential that heritage offers to local communities, the necessity to be aware of the dangers that threaten heritage preservation and sustainable tourism development was emphasized. After the introductory theoretical part, an action plan for the pilot project was created.

Finally, the fourth part of the workshop is planned to occur in Split on April 4-5. During the two-day program, in collaboration with the local artists, LL participants will co-create the campaigns to raise awareness of ICH. Results are going to be presented publicly at the online event in May.

Panel rasprava – Doprinos turizma uključivom rastu

Dana 21.10. 2021. godine Katedra za turizam i gospodarstvo pri Ekonomskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Splitu, u suradnji s Living Lab-om osnovanim u okviru aktivnosti HORIZON 2020 projekta SmartCulTour, organizirala je virtualnu panel raspravu povodom  Svjetskog dana turizma, čija je središnja tema ove godine bila „Doprinos turizma  uključivom  rastu“  (Tourism for inlcusive growth).

Moderator panela je bio Ante Mandić, član Katedre za turizam i gospodarstvo na Ekonomskom fakultetu u Splitu te voditelj SmartCulTour living laba. Panelisti su bili Petrić s Ekonomskog fakulteta u Splitu, Mirko Petrić  s Instituta za društvena istraživanja „Ivo Pilar“, Goran Rihelj, turistički novinar i bloger, osnivač turističkog portala i Zvonimir Kuliš, asistent na Katedri za turizam i gospodarstvo.

Prof. Petrić je održala uvodno predavanje na temu „Turizam kao prilika ili prijetnja uključivom rastu“, kojim je sudionike upoznala s teorijskim konceptom uključivog rasta, njegovom povezanošću  s ciljevima održivog razvoja do 2030.g. (UN SDG goals) te modalitetima primjene koncepta u inozemnoj i domaćoj turističkoj razvojnoj praksi.  Temom pod naslovom „Turizam i društvene vrijednosti kulture“ Mirko Petrić  je kroz primjere domaće prakse ukazao na  često poguban utjecaj turizma na kulturu i identitet lokalne zajednice kao i na nastojanja da se uspostavom lokalnih vrijednosnih lanaca ponude takvi utjecaji minimiziraju.  Goran Rihelj, turistički novinar i bloger, osnivač turističkog portala , kroz temu pod naslovom  „Turizam u manje razvijenim područjima RH“ , dao je prikaz brojnih dobrih primjera turističke valorizacije lokalnih sadržaja s naglaskom na kontinentalna, mahom slabije razvijena područja RH, ukazavši na potencijal turizma da ublaži probleme nerazvijenosti, dok je  Zvonimir Kuliš kroz predavanje pod naslovom „Stavovi lokalne zajednice o razvoju kulturnog turizma“ upoznao sudionike panela s rezultatima anketiranja stanovnika Splita, Trogira, Kaštela, Solina, Klisa, Dugopolja i Sinja o njihovoj percepciji razvojnih potencijala kulturnog turizma u navedenim gradovima/općinama. Ovo je istraživanje inače provedeno u okviru projekta HORIZON 2020 SmartCulTour, na kojem je Ekonomski fakultet  projektni partner, a koji se bavi učincima kulturnog turizma na razvoj urbanih, ruralnih i perifernih područja EU.

Nakon održanih uvodnih predavanja,  brojni studenti kao i vanjski sudionici panela su nizom pitanja razvili konstruktivnu polemiku pokazujući veliki interes kao i zavidnu razinu informiranosti o temi panela, tražeći od panelista komentare i odgovore na pitanja u vezi  prekomjernog turizma, rasta i razvoja, uloge lokalne zajednice u razvoju turizma, itd. Panel je, zbog interesa sudionika, umjesto predviđenih sat i pol, trajao gotovo dva i pol sata, iznjedrivši prijedlog samih sudionika da ovakvih rasprava bude i više te da se studenti aktivno  uključe u proces podizanja svijesti u lokalnim zajednicama o koristima i troškovima razvoja turizma, što je došlo kao inicijativa iz redova samih studenata studijskih programa turizma.

Pandemija, kulturna baština i održivi oporavak turizma na području splitskog LL-a

Autor: Lidija Petrić (Ekonomski fakultet Split, Katedra za turizam i gospodarstvo)

Još uvijek aktualna COVID 19 pandemija ozbiljno je uzdrmala globalno gospodarstvo, pri čemu je turizam zasigurno jedna od najpogođenijih djelatnosti. Nažalost, ne postoji niti jedna zemlja niti regija koja nije pogođena drastičnim padom potražnje,  zbog čega nositelji turističke ponude trpe goleme štete, a mnogi su bili primorani i ugasiti svoje poslovanje.

Stoga se, iako svjesni problema koje je sa sobom nosio prekomjerni turizam (engl. overtourism), s nostalgijom prisjećamo rezultata pred-pandemijske 2019. godine, kad je samo u Splitu realizirano cca. 944,465 dolazaka (4,8% od ukupnog broja u RH) i 2.757,305 noćenja (3,02% od ukupnog broja u RH). Na području  živućeg laboratorija (engl. Living Lab – LL) splitske metropolitanske regije ostvareno je ukupno 4.209,207 noćenja, od čega su četiri obalna grada (tj. Split, Trogir, Kaštela i Solin) ostvarila preko 97% ukupnog broja noćenja u LL-a (koji, osim navedenih gradova obuhvaća i općine Klis i Dugopolje te grad Sinj). Prema podacima Turističke zajednice Splitsko-dalmatinske županije (2019, 2020, 2021), u 2020.godini na području LL-a ostvareno je 1.475,968 noćenja, odnosno 65% manje nego u 2019. godini. U novu sezonu 2021. krenuli smo s oprezom, pri čemu nam porast  kumulativnog broja noćenja na području LL-a za razdoblje siječanj-lipanj 2021. u odnosu na isto razdoblje 2020.godine, u iznosu od cca 73% (359,802 u odnosu na 208,206 noćenja) ulijeva nadu u kakav-takav oporavak.

Prema procjenama Svjetske turističke organizacije (UNWTO), od trenutka kad se pandemija zaustavi, turizmu će trebat između 2 i 4 godine da se oporavi (ovisno o području). Iako je u uvjetima izrazite nesigurnosti i brzih promjena nezahvalno davati prognoze o brzini oporavka turizma na području Splitsko –dalmatinske županije i LL-a  Splitska metropolitanska regija, ne smijemo zanemariti procjene i preporuke recentnih studija koje su temeljem iscrpnih analiza trendova i resursa za RH i Splitsko dalmatinsku županiju dale preporuke smjera u kojem treba krenuti u budućnosti. 

Prema rezultatima istraživanja Instituta za turizam, «Stavovi i potrošnja turista-TOMAS Hrvatska 2019» (Marušić et al, 2019), u RH je do 2019. godine zabilježen kontinuirani rast motivacije vezane uz aktivni odmor, pri čemu i dalje dominira more i priroda, u nešto manjoj mjeri posjet gradovima, razgledavanje, kultura i umjetnost te sport i rekreacija, a zamjetan je i trend porast interesa za gastronomijom, zabavom i festivalima, ruralnim područjima, te događanjima. Kad je riječ o zadovoljstvu turista ponudom u RH, iskazano je visoko zadovoljstvo atmosferom destinacije, a umjereno zadovoljstvo kulturno-umjetničkom ponudom i kvalitetom razgledavanja. Kvaliteta događanja ocijenjena je niskom ocjenom, što ukazuje na potrebu daljnjeg promišljanja o kulturnim aspektima turističke ponude. Slične su ocjene zabilježene i na području Splitsko-dalmatinske županije.

Master plan turizma Splitsko-dalmatinske županije (2018) također je istaknuo porast putovanja motiviranih kulturom na području Županije, uslijed čega se spektar aktivnosti koje uključuju kulturnu komponentu dalje širi, čime doprinosi sve izraženijoj segmentaciji tržišta kulturnog turizma. U tom smislu Master plan ističe tri pod-segmenta kulturnih turista s obzirom na motivaciju, i to: turiste  motivirane učenjem o kulturnoj baštini temeljem posjećivanja kulturno-povijesnih znamenitosti; turiste motivirane sudjelovanjem na kulturnim događanjima, uključujući popularnu kulturu; i turiste  motivirane kreativnim i kulturnim aktivnostima temeljenim na nematerijalnoj kulturnoj baštini, poput podučavanja glagoljice, tradicionalnih vještina, suvremene prakse kulture života i rada ili suvremene umjetničke produkcije. Uz ove primarne segmente, sve je veća potražnja za kulturnim «iskustvima», a posljedično i integracija klasičnih kulturnih i turističkih proizvoda s religijom, gastronomijom ili umjetničkim i kreativnim praksama. Trendovi na suvremenom turističkom tržištu povezani s potragom za autentičnošću i aktivnim sudjelovanjem potiču rast potražnje za turističkim događanjima i promiču sudjelovanje turista u samom proizvodu, što dodatno naglašava važnost kreativnosti u (su) dizajniranju različitih proizvoda kulturnog turizma. Iako takve proizvode traže turisti različitih dobnih skupina i razine obrazovanja, važno je ipak naglasiti da interes za kulturu raste proporcionalno starosti i prihodu.

Iako Splitsko-dalmatinska županija ima izvanredan potencijal za razvoj baštinskog turizma (engl. heritage tourism) na cijelom području, s obzirom na sezonalnost potražnje kulturna baština privlači svega 13% turista koji su posjetili Županiju 2018.godine.  Iako su relativno zadovoljni prezentacijom kulturne baštine (55%) i kulturnih znamenitosti (57%), županijski turisti dnevno na kulturu troše svega dva eura. Analiza kulturne baštine po mjestima i turističkim klasterima Županije pokazala je da je kulturna baština prvenstveno nespremna ili djelomično pripremljena za turističko tržište, uzrokujući tako jaz između obilja kulturne baštine i udjela turista koji su za nju zainteresirani.

Što se tiče kreativnog turizma kao elementa županijske kulturne turističke ponude, Master plan (2018.) svoje je pod-proizvode grupirao na sljedeći način:

  • ljetne umjetničke radionice i / ili škole koje vode poznati umjetnici ili profesionalna / amaterska udruženja za djecu, mlade i amatere;
  • ljetne umjetničke radionice koje vode stranci ili ih organiziraju razne škole, udruge, zaklade za svoje članove / učenike na raznim destinacijama, uključujući županijske destinacije;
  • programi opuštanja i oporavka (joga, meditacija) koji se često kombiniraju s kreativnim (npr. pisanje) ili sportskim (veslanje, jedrenje) aktivnostima;
  • radionice temeljene na tradiciji kulture života i rada, koje u pravilu nude županijske turističke agencije, uključujući posjete eko-etno selima, tematske planinarske ture, degustacije hrane i pića, kulinarske radionice i foto ture.

Što se tiče turizma događaja (engl. event tourism), Master plan ukazuje na slabo zadovoljstvo turista brojem i raznolikošću zabave. Stoga je to jedan od niže ocijenjenih elemenata turističke ponude, koji pokazuje da je 58% zadovoljno brojnošću događanja, a 52% kvalitetom raznih zabavnih događanja.

Master plan županije SD (2018.) ukazuje da, osim za Splitsku rivijeru, gdje se nekoliko kulturnih događaja može smatrati spremnima za valorizaciju tržišta, svi ostali događaji ili nisu spremni ili su djelomično spremni za privlačenje turista. Sukladno navedenom, u istome dokumentu autori definiraju  niz strategija i aktivnosti povezanih s budućim razvojem županijskih turističkih proizvoda. Tako je baštinski turizam proglašen primarnim proizvodom, kao i eno-gastro turizam, pri čemu se za potrebe njegova razvoja ističe nužnost jačanja proizvodnje lokalnih gastro i enoloških proizvoda, stvaranje lokalnih opskrbnih lanaca proizvodnje hrane i vina, jačanje mreža među proizvođačima i turističkom industrijom itd. Turizam događanja (event tourism) dobio je status tercijarnog proizvoda sa strategijama usmjerenim na poboljšanje njegove kvalitete i smanjenje sezonalnosti. Kreativni turizam proglašen je sekundarnim proizvodom u portfelju županijskih proizvoda. Napokon, gradski turizam i vjerski turizam doživljavaju se kao tercijarni turistički proizvodi.